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Universal Service

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Below you will find answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about universal service and how USAC administers the universal service fund.

If you have any further questions, please contact us. You can call us at (202) 776-0200 and ask for External Relations. You can also send an email to the outreach team. If you are a reporter, please send your questions to Media Requests. Please be sure to include your name, affiliation, and the best way for us to contact you.

 

Q1: What is universal service?

A1: Universal service is the principle that all Americans should have access to a baseline level of telecommunications services. This principle is the cornerstone of the Communications Act of 1934, which established universal service in legislation and also created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Since that time, universal service policies have helped make telephone service ubiquitous, even in rural areas. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 (1996 Telecom Act) expanded the scope of universal service to include increased, affordable access to both telecommunications and advanced services, such as high-speed Internet, for all consumers. More specifically, the law adopted explicit goals to guide the implementation of universal service policies. These goals include:

  • Promote the availability of quality services at just, reasonable, and affordable rates.
  • Increase access to advanced telecommunications services throughout the nation.
  • Advance the availability of such services to all consumers, including those in low income, rural, insular, and high cost areas at rates that are reasonably comparable to those charged in urban areas.
  • Increase access to telecommunications and advanced services in schools, libraries, and rural health care facilities.
  • Provide equitable and non-discriminatory contributions from all providers of telecommunications services to the fund supporting universal service programs.

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Q2: What is the universal service fund?

A2: The universal service fund (USF) is money collected from telecommunications companies and dedicated to fulfilling the goals of universal service. Telecommunications companies are required to make universal service contributions based on earned revenue. Under the authority of the 1996 Telecom Act, the FCC put USAC in charge of administering the collection and disbursement of universal service funds. In 2012, universal service disbursements totaled $8.7 billion.

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Q3: What are the universal service programs?

A3: The universal service programs are mechanisms for providing funding to organizations or companies eligible for support. These beneficiaries help fulfill the goals of universal service of providing affordable access to telecommunications services for all Americans.

Below are brief descriptions of each program, along with 2012 levels of universal service funding:

  • The High Cost Program provides support to eligible telecommunications companies that in turn offer service to consumers in hard-to-serve, rural areas at rates that are comparable to those available in urban areas. In 2012, the program provided over $4.15 billion in support.
  • The Lifeline Program provides support to telecommunications companies that in turn offer discounts on telecommunications services to eligible consumers. In 2012, the program provided $2.19 billion in support.
  • The Rural Health Care (RHC) Program provides support to eligible rural health care providers (HCPs) that qualify for reduced rates for telecommunications services and broadband access. This allows HCPs to pay rates for telecommunications services similar to those of their urban counterparts, making telehealth services affordable in rural areas. In 2012, the program provided over $106 million in support.
  • The Schools and Libraries Program, commonly known as the E-rate Program, provides support to eligible schools and libraries that qualify for reduced rates for telecommunications, telecommunications services, Internet access, internal connections, and basic maintenance of internal connections. In 2012, the program provided over $2.22 billion in support.

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Q4: Who pays for universal service?

A4: As required by the 1996 Telecom Act, telecommunications carriers providing international and interstate service and earning above certain revenue thresholds make universal service contributions. Consumers may notice a universal service line item on their telephone bills. This line represents a charge by a telephone company to recover its FCC-mandated universal service contributions.

Below is an example of the quarterly collection and disbursement process, which is repeated each quarter:


May 1
Carriers submit the FCC Form 499-Q (Quarterly Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet) with projected revenue.
May 2 USAC submits quarterly fund size and administrative cost filings to the FCC.
June 1 USAC files projected carrier revenue and a proposed contribution factor with the FCC.
June 15 The FCC issues a Public Notice with the proposed contribution factor.
July 1 The contribution factor becomes effective and is used by carriers for billing.
July 15 USAC sends invoices to contributors.
August 15 Contributor invoices are due at USAC.
August 30 USAC distributes funds through the four universal service programs.

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Q5: How does universal service funding work?

A5: Universal service collections: All telecommunications carriers that provide international and interstate service make universal service contributions. The amounts of these contributions are determined by projections of the aggregate demand for universal service support, which USAC submits each quarter to the FCC. The FCC reviews these projections and determines the percentage of international and interstate revenues that carriers must contribute.

 

Universal service contributions fund the High Cost, Lifeline, Rural Health Care, and Schools and Libraries Programs. Entities eligible for support from these programs submit information to USAC for processing and evaluation, leading to disbursement of universal service support to those approved for funding.

How program participants claim support in each of the programs:

  • High Cost: Rural and non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and competitive carriers that are eligible telecommunications carriers (ETCs) submit line count data, certain cost data, and certifications to USAC to receive support.
  • Lifeline: ETCs that provide consumers with Lifeline Program discounts file the FCC Form 497 (Lifeline Worksheet) with USAC to receive Lifeline Program support that reimburses them for providing service at discounted rates.
  • Rural Health Care: All health care providers (HCPs), or consortia of HCPs seeking to participate in the Rural Health Care Program, conduct a competitive bidding process for services to be used in providing health care. Once the service providers and services are selected, the health care provider completes and submits a funding request to USAC and later a notice that actual service has begun. The HCP then receives the benefit of the reduced rates from the Rural Health Care Program, which pays the selected service provider for the discounts it provides to the HCP.
  • Schools and Libraries: Eligible applicants in this program open a competitive bidding process to receive bids on the products and services they seek. Service providers submit bids, which are reviewed by applicants under applicable program rules. Applicants select the service provider for the service or product and submit the appropriate forms to USAC to process support payment invoices.

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Q6: What is USAC?

A6: USAC is an independent, not-for-profit corporation designated by the FCC as the administrator of the universal service fund (USF).

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Q7: What does USAC do?

A7: USAC's mission is to collect and distribute universal service funds. USAC administers the four universal service programs in accordance with the FCC's rules, orders, and directives. USAC does not set or advocate policy. USAC works to protect the integrity of universal service, promote compliance among program participants, and provide information about universal service to Congress, the FCC, program audiences, and the general public. In all of these tasks, USAC strives to provide efficient, responsible stewardship of the programs; a key national asset in making important telecommunications services and broadband access available to consumers, health care providers, schools, and libraries throughout the United States.

 

Since its creation in 1998 through December 2012, USAC has disbursed over $90 billion to support the goals of universal service and to help keep Americans connected. USAC performs a wide range of complex, large-scale operations. See highlights for 2012 on the USAC Fast Facts and Annual Reports pages.

 

NOTE: USAC is the neutral administrator of the universal service programs. USAC may not make policy, interpret unclear provisions of the statute or rules, interpret the intent of Congress, or advocate policy positions before the FCC or its staff, but may advocate positions on administrative issues related to universal service programs.

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Q8: Approximately how much universal service funding is disbursed for each program?

A8: Below are the four universal service programs' unaudited approved disbursement totals for 2012.

2012 Disbursements (unaudited) $8.71 billion
High Cost $4.15 billion
Lifeline $2.19 billion
Rural Health Care $155 million
Schools and Libraries $2.22 billion

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Q9: Where can I find USAC's annual reports?

A9: You can view USAC annual reports in the "About USAC" section of our website, under "Publications."

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Q10: Where can I find USAC's press releases?

A10:You can view USAC press releases in the "About USAC" section of our website, under "Media Kit."

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Q11: Where can I find more information about the four universal service programs?

A11: You can view annual reports, brochures, glossaries of terms, newsletters, tip sheets and other materials about the four universal service programs in the "About USAC" section of our website under Publications.

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